## Single Line Drawing Guidelines

Overall plant single line diagrams show the electrical power distribution system, in simplified form, from the utility and/or generated supply to the load side of substation protection devices. Exceptions include substations 600 volts and over.

The size of the power system determines the number of drawings required.Generally, the overall plant single line diagrams do not include breakdowns of distribution panels, motor control centers, motors or similar electrical equipment located on the load side of the substation.

Single line diagrams, be it for a project or overall power system, show the electrical power distribution and utilization for a particular project, local plant area. read more

## Electrical installation

When we want to setup the new building or electrical application,it must have connection with electricity.So we need the electrical installation to make our application function properly and safety for human and equipment.

Theoretically electrical installation is a variation of electrical devices installed to achieve  specific purpose for any application.The key point that we must alert when dealing with the electrical installation is to take care necessary to ensure the safety of personnel and the protection of equipment from electrical faults.

So electrical installation is important subject that we must consider and get a clear view to avoid any injuries or damage for human or equipment.I want shared some information about electrical installation. read more

## How calculate ampere for electric motor?

Generally for electric motor size,it rated by horsepower (hp) or kilowatts (kW) unit.We can recognize the electric motor size when refer to their kilowatts or horsepower.So from power (kW/hp), how we can know the full load ampere for electric motor?

This time i want share about how to calculated the full load ampere (FLA) of electric motor from their power rated.It not difficult if we know the right formula to get the answer.From this calculation we only can estimate the value of full load ampere.

We cannot get the actual full load ampere because it depend on efficiency of motor.If electric motors have a higher efficiency rating,it will draw fewer amps, for example a 10 HP motor with a 60% efficiency rating will draw about 65 amps at 230 VAC compared to about 45 amps for a motor with a 80% rating. read more

## Power factor capacitor installation

Last time i already discuss about how to sizing the power factor capacitor.After we got a figure and corrected size for capacitor,the next step is what is types for installation of capacitor?

The installation of power factor capacitor have several method that commonly used around the world.This time i want share some information about types of power factor capacitor installation method.

This part is critical and important because if we wrong to choose the installation method,it can cause a damage for our equipment or machine.It also can effected all equipment in our placed. read more

## Electrostatic level and prevention action

Electrostatic level is a sudden electric current flow from one material to another material.If we remember how to generated electro static using rod plastic and cloth on science lab class.

Theoretically  a voltage level for ESD can damage for any electronic component is around 100-500 Volt.For the very sensitive electronic components,normally it only can withstand around 25-170 Volt.

How we can known the Electrostatic damage (ESD) phenomena?Normally we possibility can hear a ”click” sound when touching an object or equipment.From the research possibility voltage generate for the “click” sound is at least 3.5 kV. read more

## Electrostatic Discharge

As we known,equipment or machinery for home or industrial applications controlled by electronic circuit board.With intelligent technology,it can control many function with more sophisticated application to make our jobs and living style more easier and accurate.

But it have a disadvantage for the electronic latest technology.The main problem is Electrostatic Discharge (ESD).Today around the world users facing this problem and the figure is increasing day by day.

From the research information,the main source of the electrostatic discharge came from the wrong handling of electronic components,Integrated circuit,solid state circuit and printed circuit,etc. read more

## charging methods for UPS batteries

When we used the power from batteries,it will drop and losses the power performance.It must be charging to full back a capacity of batteries.It must be discharged periodically and charged up back to ensure it will supply enough power supply when needed.

Manufacture have a design suitable charging process for their UPS to ensure it can recharged a battery more faster and prolong the life span.If the charger equipment is breakdown,it can cause the power supply shortage due to UPS cannot deliver the voltage. read more